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. started in 1912, the anc was created to peacefully advocate for political rights for south africa's blacks. mandela sees the future of the organization. >> he said we at the anc wanted to be a mass organization, and we needed a mass leader. and wen thun day nelson mandela walked into his office. he realized that's the guy. >> reporter: he becomes mandela's mentor and encourages him to earn a law degree. he also introduces mandela to his young cousin, evelyn masi. the two marry in 1946 and welcomed their first child, a son, that same year. their family will eventually grow to include another son and a daughter. another daughter had been born in 1947 but died within a year. racism and segregation had existed in south africa for as long as there had been white settlers, the majority of them were descendants of the dutch and call themselves afrikaners. in 1948 the national party sweeps boo powers and codifies those apartheid policies into law. >> they were trying to achieve this kind of ethnic fragmentation of the country here in order to give the afrikaner nation its own homeland. >> reporter
a property here. >> what has been the relationship of his image to the a.n.c., the african national congress. >> as before, he is definitely the biggest name, the biggest figure to come out of the a.n.c. he was the one who in the 40's formed the a.n.c. youth league. he then radicalized the a.n.c. and convinced the a.n.c. to pursue a program of sabotage against the apartheid government. he has always been the person everyone looks to. in his later years, he has faded. he has not had the presence to lead the organization anymore, but he has always been the point of reference. he has always been the one anyone would refer to if they the moral high ground, or if they wanted to talk about the direction of the country. >> now, is there a divide we need to understand when we think about south africa that still exists economically as well as educationally and socially? >> there has been a huge divide in south africa. south africa remains a very unequal society. white south africans on average earn six times more than the average black south africans. there is a huge racial component to all of this.
of the anc, he goes to prison, and there is this transition. can you talk to us about nelson mandela during those prison years and that transformation. the think sing that he is both an inspirational and elegant sportsman. he is also a very practical politician. he has argued a peaceful change when that was possible, he considered that armed struggle might be necessary. he only opted the struggle in the early 1960's, and it was at that point that the south african government has banned the congress, if you were black, you could not vote, not even speak politically. even when he was released from prison in the 1990's, he did say, or he would not renounce the necessity in certain circumstances for using armed struggle. remember the south african military was threaten to have a coupe, and there was a good chance in 1994, instead of having an elected black majority, we may have seen a white racism military regime. it came very very close. >> professor, hang on, i can see ali velshi nodding here. >> yeah. professor remember in the negotiations leading to the first election, the white supremacist
take lightly that the anc and nelson mandela were considered by terrorists by much of the western world, including the right wing here. and for mandela to emerge as a prisoner, negotiating privately, at great risk, even at the great risk of some that were supporters of his, who didn't know about the negotiations until later. and for him to take that move of reconciliation and lead that country into an election, i was an election observer, i remember barbara lea, i don't think she was in congress yet. i have a picture of her and danny glover and all of us at the hotel. and it was an amazing time to see people lined up, the first time they could vote and for miles and miles, for three days, and they didn't vote on individuals, they voted on parties. mandela always talked about him and others. and he talked about the party. but to go from terrorist to being the kind of celebrated statesmen, people shouldn't sweep past that. he suffered. of his colleagues suffered. decades in jail, ostracized. never thought they'd see daylight again as free people, but they took that and transformed their c
to the anc, the same organization. my grandmother was also a political leader within the anc. >> and your grandmother then also was close to him and visited him in prison, and nelson mandela wrote her. >> several times, and my grandmother would write back. she told me she wrote so many letters, some of which never reached him. a few made it all the way and she put them into a book. and after giving them to the archives. >> having visited him in prison where he suffered, he it tuberculosis, problems with his eyesight. she must have seen the suffering. what did she say or what do you think about how he left prison and had the grace and indignity to invite the gaolers. >> at this point i have to d admit when she came back i thought she'd come back with a message of fighting. let's continue the fight. she said, "you'll be surprised, my grandson, nelson mandela is going to tell us all to reconcile, shake hands with our former enemies." he is convinced he'll be released. she came back convinced the man had not changed. he was for the policies and would reconcile. desmond tutu, the arch bishop a
in the ranks of leadership of a civil rights group called the african national congress, the a.n.c. >> they were the revolutionaries of their day. they were the wild young men. >> teichner: former "time" magazine editor rick stengel spent countless hours in private conversation with mandela while collaborating on mandela's autobiography. >> mandela went to johannesburg as a young man and was treated in the terrible way that young black men were treated in the 1950s. i think this had a huge effect on him. >> teichner: mandela was in the forefront of growing resistance by the a.n.c., which began to protest the hated laws requiring blacks to carry passes, restricting where they could go. then, a galvanizing moment caught the world's attention. on march 21, 1960, in sharpeville, the peaceful civil rights movement was pierced with bullets. ( gunfire ) walter cronkite reported. >> police mounted on tanks opened fire. 69 natives were killed, 176 wounded. most of the victims were shot in the back. >> teichner: it was against this blood-red backdrop that nelson mandela took up arms. >> it i
of actually what was the case. when chris hani was an anc leader, was murdered, that was a seminole moment. you talked about when then mandela goes to f.w. de klerk and says, you have to stop this or virtually everything will go off the rails. >> and he went on television in south africa that night rather than de klerk ask showed that he was the father of the nation. as you know, i was with him when his father was murdered. we were in kuno, had just taken an early morning walk, the phone rang and he picked it up and got the news. he was on the phone for about 15 minutes, his expression never changed. he put down the phone and turned to me with a little ex aspiration and said, man, where is our porridge? he was so calm in a crisis and then he rose to that. he said that was when south africa was on the knife edge of a civil war. that was one of the most perilous moments of modern history. and he presided over the fact that they would repair themselves. >> charlene gault is with us in south africa. i want to show over the years of how mandela was featured, and that international claim that re
declerk to reform the government had to play peace keeper, trying to temper escalading violence anc, and supporters of the freedom barty, who wanted no part of negotiations with the government that had helped him down for so long. thousands were killed in black on black fighting. also, his marriage to winny mandela, a powerful political force herself was crumbling, the woman who supported him so publicly during the long years of incarceration was accused of having affaired and being linked to some of the violence in south africa. they finally deviced. through it all, he led the country through broader democracy, and in 1984, he was able to vote for himself in a free election. he won, and was inaugurated as the first black president of his country. >> on this day, you took destiny into your own hands. you decided that would nothing would stop you from electing the government of your choice. country's infrastructure. he met the white house, meeting with three sitting presidents. in 2002 george w. bush presented him with the medal of freedom. president obama met mandela once in 2005, w
which considered the anc a terrorist group, from margaret thatcher considered the anc a terrorist group and nelson mandela a terrorist. and this is the '80s. there was a lot of resistance to the idea of the government should fall, much less that this die vestment should take place at all. >> this was in the context of the cold war. and one of the most insidious things that the apartheid south african government did was they couched their oppression in terms of the communist struggle, that essentially the anc was riddled through with communists and pro-cubans. when nelson mandela was freed and made this tour. when he got to miami, he was actually rejected by the local government in miami, two mayors of miami and miami dade would not receive mandela because he was perceived as being pro-castro. so there was this whole sort of cold war fight that was tied up in the south african struggle. and it was part of the reason that the reagan administration opposed the idea of sanctions and divestment from south africa. >> please stay with us. >>> coming up, we will look at the presidency of nelson
administration branded the anc a terrorist group and dick cheney voted against a resolution to release nelson mandela. so this was all happening around the world. >> right. i think peter godwin's point that south africa's transition was facile traitated by the end the cold what are is extremely important but it's important to remember in the 1980s a lobl anti-apartheid movement arose during the cold war in which people in america said we're not going to see south africa in purely cold war terms. we're not going to sep reagan's pacic envision that the apartheid regime is on the part of the free world because it's anti-communist and the anc, they are on the side of unfreedom. i think the willingness to look at south africa beyond cold war terms when when the cold war was raging was critically important to the transition in south africa. >> when you talked with nelson mandela, did you find that he -- had he forgiven the west for, you know, having mostly for the most part sided against the anc? >> i think in my conversations with him, he forgave the west, and he realized there's a huge amount of
and a leading voice in the african national congress, the anc. struggling to end the inequality of apartheid, white ruled south africa's policy of racial segregation. but in 1960 after police shot and killed 49 protestors, the anc which had always been nonviolent created a military wing under mandela's command. >> there are many people who feel that it's useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and nonviolence against the government. >> reporter: the regime determined to maintain white rule saw the inspiring young revolutionary as a threat. >> our struggle is truly national. it is a struggle for the right to live. >> reporter: mandela was imprisoned in 1962 and two years later sentenced to life in prison, accused of working to overthrow the government. in court, on trial for his life he said this. >> i have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society. it is an ideal for which i hope to live and to see realized, but my lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which i am prepared to die. >> reporter: four miles off the coast of cape town south africa on robben island, he sp
and exciting and rewarding experience. visit a man who had been selected by the leadership, to lead the anc during nelson mandela's incarceration. he was given the power and the authority to give instructions to the rest of us who were in the service of that cause. i often heard nelson mandela's voice very clearly through the things that he was doing. it became apparent that we were getting closer and closer to the time when mandela would be freed. many of us looked to that with a great sense of hope, but i never thought i would live long enough to see him released from prison. but he was released -- and i was instructed to help them prepare for the first visit to the united states. capacity, i corresponded nelsonnnie mandela and himself, to set up the kind of environment that would be most rewarding with his visit for the united states. here and i was charged with the responsibility of leading the demands that were made upon us for the visit here. >> that was the very first time the very that was first time, during that excitement i was able to meet you and befriend you, but let me thatfor
reel seat of the anc. he was arrested again in nineteen sixty two and try to present iphone type activities. then it was sentenced to life imprisonment in nineen sixty four would end up spending more than a quarter of this entry behind bars this involved a minute opinion polls will make a town moment that it was imprisoned lisa curry poignant shook the country in nineteen seventy six government forces saw dozens of youth and school children who would demonstrate in custody in stewart st. in the nineteen nineties demonstrations and police find its continued state of emergency was declared the country's currency collapsed. meanwhile the anti apartheid movement picked up momentum the board's announcement that it became its living single. several musicians great songs in his armor and writing history the month that it was eventually transferred to pick suppose to prison in nineteen ninety eight when he meets guilty secret negotiations with the government. in nineteen ninety the ban on gays he was lifted to dump every eleven combat team into the warm temps a free man . then it was el
of the nation, aimed at civil installations and not soft or human targets but in times can, the anc their acts bore no comparison to the thousands murdered in otherwise disappeared by the regime. >> there are many people whofeed futile for us to continue talkintalking peace and nonviole against a government whose reply is only savage attacks. well i'm on the defenseless people. >> in 1962 a vishz crack downwas caught up in the regime's wide net. his anc colleagues were rounded up and jailed. in 1963 during what came to be called the ravonia trial, the government tried and convicted mandela and seven of the top command of the anc on charges of sabotage and fomenting revolution. a capital offense. the eight were sentenced to life in prison. even from his cell on robin island, the alcatraz like island, six miles from cape town, mandela was uncompromising, says helen, a parliament service person. >> mattresses, the fact that thr between, and mostly about the behavior of the war den who has a tattoo on the back of his hands of the swastika. he says this man is very bad, he treats us badly. >> but e
winnie mandela was, what was apartheid, what is anc, that is african national congress. it took years leading up to dive divestment. because i was fortunate enough to serve on the board of trans africa we were part of the strategy that not only did rallying and arrested at the embassy and took over the south african consulate in los angeles but economic sanctions were extremely important to put pressure on the south african government to help bring down the unconscionable apartheid. so it took work, hard work. >> there was a movement across the country as congressman mentioned on campuses everywhere. i was covering it. ron, you in congress with a number of leaders an then some republicans joining in to try to finally pass the legislation. you authored one piece of legislation. it was compromised and finally passed and overrode veto. jim baker said on "morning joe" today, this was a time when congress took on the foreign policy, first override of foreign policy veto of a president in that century. >> it really was. first let me say, i'm honored to be with my sister and friend maxine wa
. because he became softer, that is not true. the policy of forgiveness reconsideration was always anc policy. so that it didn't take prison to do that. theory jet stream tried to plague down how badly it was treating the prisoners. this photograph was a staged event. >> you didn't know this was taken. >> no, we didn't know this was taken. >> the government was trying to make him think he was only doing light work, the prisoners had wondered why for one day only the laboring became easy, but it was to get tougher later, the laboring moved to what was an open lime quarry, 13 years of hard toll breaking rock, the dazzling reflection of white stone, damaging their eyesight. when they weren't laboring, they were sometimes allowed visits in this gloomy building, his second wife an activist herself came under a travel babb, one stage mandela waited two years between her visits. >> by regulation, there was a minimum of six months between each visit, and also by regulation, there was no contact. a screen between husband and wife, winny would sit on this side, the communication through a speake
mandela and te other anc lieder leaders who wee heavily influenced by them. the older men learned a lot by the youth that came into the island and it became an ep pi center of two give generations discussing how to end the apartheid government. that is why it's so significant in the nature of this country and the legacy of nelson mandela. >> it remained wi winnie's homer a number of years did nelson mandela ever go back to the house? >> he go he spent a short while here when he came out of prison. the first thing he did was come home where he was greeted by hundredses of thousands of people from this particular area his wife remained here for much of the time he was in prison. she was removed from the house and banished to a remote town hundreds of miles away from johannesburg both as punishment and to remove her and mande mans influence his daughter continued to remain in the house i. it gives you a taste to see how bad and repressive that they were at that time. and a 17-year-old daughter left to fend for herself in this house. >> describe the impact mandela and his policies had on th
, which was always the goal of the anc. and whether one is from nigeria or tanzania or closer to home, mozambique, across africa people rallied behind the anc in that struggle. i think president mandela stood for freedom, and he now stands for integrity and perseverance. the continent needs to move towards that in terms of the next phase of the struggle, which is political freedom has been achieved now. economic freedom is necessary. >> speak a little about your own experience in relation to the perspective of nelson mandela, particularly when it comes to nonviolent protest, and in violence in africa, as well is the work you have done combating aids in africa. >> i really respect president mandela, again, because of his conviction. he was a person who started as he did, in terms of nonviolent struggle against apartheid regime, and at some point he realized the level of repression of the national party required a more robust response, which was moving towards arms struggle. leader likefound a erk who could negotiate with the national party that was now ready after the mass demonstratio
to europe and other countries in africa to built support for the anc and study guerilla warfare. when he returned to south africa in 1962, mandela was arrested and sentenced to years in prison. during his sentence, the government charmed mandela and other anc leaders with sabotage and attempting to violently overthrow the government. the winner of 1964, mandela and his colleagues were sentenced to in prison. mandela's brutal imprisonment helped win freedom for his nation. he represented himself and in his defense spoke out about democracy. equality and freedom. on february 2nd, 1990 amidst escalating international pressure, south african president lifted the ban on the anc and released mandela. mandela was awarded the nobel peace prize in december of 1993. in april of 1994, in south africa's first truly democratic election where all races were allowed to participate, nelson mandela was overwhelming elected to the presidency. he was battling a respiratory infection since early june. a remarkable man and a remarkable life and a model of stick-to-itiveness and never give up. a man of tremen
. with him no longer as the spiritual leader of the anc. at least no longer on this earth. what is that going to do to politics going forward? >> when he walked away and said don't call me, i'll call you, he left politics. so for a number of years now, he has not been on the scene. i think to a certain extent, that's unfortunate. i think that this young democracy is having some missteps. >> it does feel that way. >> a few stumbles. it's difficult because mandela has not been there to way in. maybe at this moment when people are not on the streets, but contemplating what mandela stood for, they might come to a better moment than they are in currently. >> put into perspective, that was an amazing three or four-year period in history. when you look back, it's stunning and like how did we lose the momentum? we were almost there. >> it takes -- you did have prague and the berlin wall and the leaders who were able to have a vision. bush 41 had a vision in terms of german reunionification. there were leaders in different parts of the world. >> who seize the moment. >>a i new economic freedom was not
. there were strong strands within the anc, within south africa, that were centered on black consciousness. he was intent on having an election with mandate that reduced their role. he focused on, as you know, the pan african congress, polling 2% or 3% of the poll. historically, they played a big role in africa and the liberation struggle. he wanted to use the election to send a message this would be an inclusive country. >> and jendayi frazer. talking about the relationship with people he didn't necessarily get along with. we know f.w. de klerk. they shared a nobel peace prize. everyone though they didn't share much of a relationship. nelson mandela, a fierce critic of president bush on the war in iraq and the invasion of iraq. he was determined to try to maintain something of a personal relationship there. >> actually, president mandela, as fierce a critic as he was to the war in iraq supported the war in afghanistan. if you recall, in 2001 when he first met president george w. bush as the president in the oval office, he came out and forcefully endorsed america going into afghanistan. just
's. my husband was a pat, pan african congress, mr. mandela was founder of anc, african national congress, others south african national union. i was used to those men and a few women shouting and screaming at each other. they were really arch rivals. when mr. mandela came, he didn't raise his voice. he didn't argue with anybody. he didn't put anybody down. they were rivals. i had never met a south african who wasn't shouting and really angry all the time. i know he was angry, but he didn't use his energy foolishly. so it was a year after that he was imprisoned. i became friends with his wife then, winnie mandela. and we continued to support each other over the years and over the oceans. and she would tell me how he was. he wasn't vitt uperative with t guards. i was part of hillary clinton's delegates when he was inaugurated. i sat there and watched the guards, who had guarded him for 27 years, sitting in the right sights, in the best seats, invited by mr. mandela. not to say look how you treated me. i'm free now and i can ya ya ya at you, not that at all. in fact, he was gracious, welcom
, was release all nt a.n.c. leaders, which were also an robin island, including governor mbecki. we were political opponens. we were opposing each other with regard to the potential vote when an election came up. secondly, mostly around the issue of ongoing political violent. tensions grew between us at times to high levels. at all times, notwithstanding the intentions, we found it possible to rise above them when approached by my negotiators to find solutions and prevent negotiations from stalling. nelson mandela - he was a very special man. i think nothing is being overplayed. i think he is held in high - the highest esteem. not only by the overwhelming majority of south africans, but worldwide. i think he's a towering figure of the past century. therefore, i think we should pay him the tribe ute and the honour which he'd like - lay the foundation his integrity, his emphasis on the need for reconciliation - all that make him the icon that he has become. >> a tribute from f.w. de klerk, a deputy president when nelson mandela became president. preparations to say farewell have been made
of reaction from friends. , manyiends from the anc of whom were in prison with him. they are really paying tribute did topast and what he make south africa the nation it is today. so far it is a quiet, somber mood. people are doing their best to highlight what he did for the country. well on the positives. >> happens next? -- what happens next? >> always know so far and this is from state tv broadcast is flown tobody has been militia hospital. we are expecting an announcement shortly telling us what the funeral arrangements will be. when everything will take place. i suspect a lot of international leaders will start arriving in the country for the funeral and we are expecting a rather long process where the nation will reflect on his life and there events lots of culminating in a few days time. >> thank you so much for all of that. we will keep on crossing live to johannesburg for the paris latest. back. the office at goldman sachs joins us with more on nelson mandela's impact on the country. >> a number of big stories to focus on. later today we will get the u.s. jobs reports. our markets
fantastic, so jail didn't hurt them. nelson mandela picked up that movement, at the anc. he was influenced by gandhi, and as that movement continues after gandhi went back to india, my family continues as part of the antiapartheid movement. and lost business as a result of they role. but we returned my family returned before the election, were were all given citizen ship. i am a sout african citizes well. and we have shared in this new beginning, which everybody looses hope in, but the fact is nelson mandela avoidedded a blood bath a civil war, and he create add remarkable nation. >> he spent time with the african national congress when it was in excite, stephen, give us your thoughts tonight. >> well, it is a very sad moment. this was a great man. it was true, in some ways her understated not just to dignity, and not just perseverance. but what he was able to exhibit when he took the country forward. there would be no rainbow nation today. i think he was essential for the progress of south africa to becoming what we would regard today as the civilized part of the world. >> obviously he ha
on to robin island and into the prison where the a.n.c. leadership were reading it. when he came out of prison a message came to me and my colleague at the "weekly mail", that he wanted us to interview him - every journalist's dream, especially a young and shallow one like myself. we did so. he expressed surprise the newspaper he was taking so seriously was run by children, but the relationship developed from there. i was a political writer, political editor and editor of the various newspapers, and i enjoyed an incredible relationship, a life-changing relationship. i would never be presum tuesday enough to say i was an associate or friend. i had proximity and been in the room when things happened. i got a real insight into what i think is one of his underplayed qualities which was an incredible understanding of global politics and - so i worked -- >> then he asked you to set up the mandela rhodes foundation, designed to encourage exceptional leadership in the young of africa. how do you go about teaching leadership. what example did he give that you have taken to the foundation? >> well, i th
and the anc and supporters of the inkata freedom party, who wanted no negotiations with the government that held them down. thousands were killed in black on black fighting. his marriage to winnie mandella, a powerful political force was crumbling. the woman who supported him during incarceration was accused of having affairs and being linked to the murderous violence in south africa. they finally divorced. through it all they led the country to broader democracy and in 1994 nelson mandela voted for himself in a free election. he won and was inaugust rated as the first black president of his country. >> on this day, you took your destiny in your own hands. you decided that nothing could prevent you from exercising your hard-won right to elect a government of your choice. >> he served one term, leading reforms in child health care and education. modernizing infrastructure. and healing. >> his close relationship with leaders like muammar gaddafi and castro drew criticism, he still visited the white houses meeting with three sitting american properties. in 2002 george w. bush presented hi
arrests for peaceful protests, anc's protest land mandela in prison for 27 years on charges of attempting to overthrow the government. the terms were notorious and brutal. the sentence confined him to a small cell for 27 years. for 18 of those years, mandela was allowed only one visitor a year for 30 minutes. he was able to write and receive one letter every six months and he was sentenced to hard labor. in those same decades that mandela lost his eldest son and mother, he was not allowed to attend their funerals. the miracle of mandela, after missing three decades of his life, after being closed off from three decades of change in the world mandela emerged without bitterness and without spite. upon his release mandela emerged hopeful. so hopeful he remained committed to working with the very same people who once imprisoned him all in the name of finding a solution for the people of south africa. when i walked out of prison, he wrote in his autobiography, it was my mission to liberate the oppressed and oppressor both. to be free is not merely to cast off one's chains but live in a way tha
to the truth. the united states was against the anc, the african national congress, because they were communists, they were backed by the ussr, and the united states being staunchly anti-communist, that's the right team, but they might have made the wrong choice. likewise, nelson mandela mail d the same exact mistake. he embraced countries like cuba, he misidentified them as comrades, when it should have been the people in the countries he identified with, because they were people under the thumb of gadhafi and under the thumb of khomeini and other nondemocratic countries. one thing you learned is how ideology at times can blind you to some very important facts. in the '80s, i was staunch anti-communist. i didn't pay attention to south africa. all i knew the anc was being backed by comb anytime munists learned that south africa was wrong. if you feel really strongly about this man, you can still act, because there's plenty of people around the world who are under the thumb of evil. and there's a lot of celebrities who don't care. there are women still being circumcised in africa. it's
't even tell his anc colleagues that he was doing that. they negotiated for years in private in order to get this done. the persistence, the courage to do that was incredible. >> incredible courage and many occasions, he went against the leadership of the anc, the political movement. and didn't tell them or when he did tell them, he would essentially say i know this is not what you want me to do, but i feel it is the thing we must do and almost all instances, he was proven correct and he was somebody -- >> go ahead, had the respect of them so that they trusted him even though they had great reservations about the other side. >> they had great reservations. they argued with him. but never the less, he was so deserving of trust that even when they disagreed with him, they knew he was the leader and not the leader in a sense of i'm in charge, but in a sense of i am the purpose, the vision, the one who's going to get us there, so trust me. come along with me. walk with me and that was his great strength. >> thank you so much. >> we'll have much more on the life of nelson mandela and talk
called at that time the anc terrorists and when he came out of prison, when he said i say to you all, take your guns, your knives, your pangers and throw them into the sea, fully declaring in his first -- practically his first public address after 28 years of being in the wilderness in prison, no, this has to be peaceful. this was huge and then you know, you heard president zuma say this is the father, the founding father of our democratic south africa, and you heard robyn talk about the tribal homeland where he lived and the rural area where he's going to be finally laid to rest, and i think i will never forget the pictures not just of the snaking lines of hundreds of thousands of millions of people in the towns and the cities who cast their ballots for nelson mandela in 1994, but the helicopter shots of the countryside, when people were literally lining up in zigzag lines so quietly, so peacefully, so joyfully, just to have the privilege of casting their first ever vote in 1994, this majority black country, they had never had that right before and they stepped up to the plate. ther
the first legal anc rally in national rally at the soccer stadium you've been talking about the last place mandela appeared during the world cup in 2010. that soccer city was new at the time when i was down in 1989. in that october, that was the first time the anc was allowed to gather in the legal fashion. it was considered a terrorist group at the time. i remember how the crowd hushed for the first time. they raised their hands in the air and sang the national anthem. it means god bless africa, had been illegal up until that point in october 1989. at that point you knew things were changing rapidly and the clerk had started something he wasn't going to be able to stop. a par tide was ending. nelson man dell laugh was to be released from prison. he was held on robin island five miles off the coast and like alcatraz like many years. he talked where he wrote his long walk to freedom, auto biography. they spent grueling hours in the sun breaking rocks on the island looking in the distance at the mountain in cape town and the beautiful cape town in the distance. mandela became close to his pr
't know even though he'd negotiated with the regime whether he'd go free and say to his a.n.c. buddies "okay, let's get them" and create rivers of blood. or whether he was there to lead the nation. and we didn't know for 24 hours. that night he gave a long, rambling boring speech and we were worried the next morning he gave a news conference and he called on reporters from the pro-apartheid papers, he treated them like friends and he was eloquent and funny and gracious and i thought "maybe he can do it." >> pelley: was there any single experience that you had in all the experiences you had in south africa that gave you a real measure of the man? >> yes, and it had nothing to do with him. i went to the island, robben island, several times and once i just went and stood on this barren rock and you could see cape town. you could see cape town from there. and i recommend to anyone who wants to get a measure of the man to just stand on that rock for a couple of hours and then try to imagine what it would be like being there for 27 years. and then try to imagine what it would be like getting
movement, that we do the right thing around apartheid. mandela, he's with the a.n.c., and some considered that to be a terrorist organization. we had solidarity with people on the ground. we saw an opportunity to make sure that the u.s. embodied the best of its values as it related to africa and that was to make sure that we did not continue to support apartheid. >> tell us about his influence on the united states policy. >> he did not abandon friends. for example, something that i know president clinton has talked about, he always disagreed with president mandela on the issue of cuba and on his relationship with fidel castro. president mandela was not one to forget his friends. he also had such an impact on the african union and creation of the african union, making sure the countries in africa could stand together and do what was in the best interest of their people. sometimes that would not be necessarily what was in the best interest of our countries. he really works to make sure that it wasn't just the people of south africa has benefited from the struggle but that all people around
was an advocate of nonviolence. becoming a leading voice in the african national congress, the anc. but in 1960, after police shot and killed 69 protesters, the anc, which had always been nonviolent, created a military wing, under mandela's command. >> there are many people who feel that it is useless and futile for us to continue talking peace and nonviolence against a government whose reply is only savage attacks. >> reporter: undaunted by the brutality and inequality that was apartheid rule, mandela remained determined to end the government's forced racial segregation. >> our struggle is a truly national one. it is a struggle for the right to live. >> reporter: a struggle that led to mandela's imprisonment in 1962. and two years later, a life sentence for working to overthrow the government. >> i have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society. it is an ideal for which i hope to live for and to see realized. but my lords, if it needs be, it is an idea for which i am prepared to die. >> reporter: four miles off the coast of capetown, south africa, on robben island, mandela spent mos
and the anc during his long imprisonment and democrats had supported sanctions on south africa so he wanted to be there, he wanted to be at our convention. he later came to the inauguration. and then hillary and vice president gore led a delegation to his inauguration in '94 and just five months later, he came to the united states on a state visit. that's when we really started becoming friends and i had the honor of working with him throughout the entire span of his presidency and one of the things that sometimes gets lost in the incredible personal impact he made on the world because of the way he handled imprisonment is that he was a very, very good president. i think he was an extremely effective president of south africa. >> i remember when you and hillary clinton and the first lady toured that robben island cell where he had spent so many years back in 1998. what was that like? >> well, it was amazing. he talked to me about it and i'll never forget, one of the most enduring conversations i had with him over the many we had in our 20 year friendship was i said you know, i know how you
that -- >> yeah, there was who ran ifpd and shootouts and gunfights. i remember going to a lot of anc funerals and ifc funerals -- >> very touch and go. >> given that election -- >> even in the month before, two months before i remember a huge gunfight in johannesburg. >> one of the things, anderson, we walked together on a long walk of freedom that ended at his inauguration. he wanted to do another book not so much from that period to the presidency but how close south africa came to a civil war. i have to say, i don't want to -- the smirks, the reputation of mr. declerk and formed a partnership and couldn't have done it without each other. mandela in conversations with me for "a long walk to freedom" did feel betrayed during the creation of the constitution and that famous scene when they were writing the constitution he chewed out declerk. >> and declerk knows that. he said we have our spots. >>> we'll take a break quick. robin, christiane, rick, donna, stay with us. tweet about your thoughts on mandela and his massing and legacy. use hash tag ac 36 0. charty and friendship. i'll speak with
and it had been illegal to publish his picture or utter his name to, in fact, to sing the anc national anthem. there were so many changes in that year when i was a young journalist in south africa. >> thanks very much. and again those are the pictures in the lower screen, the people outside nelson mandela's home tonight. the world reacting to the death of nelson mandela. dr. ben carson is here next as our coverage of this breaking news continues. >>> okay, everyone, it's time to ha i >>> the world is remembering nelson mandela. politicians and celebrities taking to facebook and twitter posting their condolences. former president bill clinton tweeting this photo with this caption, i will nevertheless forget my friend. and george w. bush posting, he was one of the great forces for freedom and equality of our time. he bore his burdens with dignity and grace. he will be miss but his contributions will live on forever. >>> and john boehner tweeted. and condoleeza rice posting, throughout history a few special people have been able to transcend differences and change theor the better. nelson mandel
africa membership of the anc, nelson mandela's organization, was a crime. his image was forbidden. his words from absolutely outlawed. even the possession of a coffee cup with his image on it was grounds for imprisonment. for all those years that he was in prison his image was absolutely obliterated. generations of south africans, grew up without knowing what he looked like, without knowing his speech or knowing his words. to know the absolutely joy that gripped the country when he and other african leaders were released from prison. here is somebody that had been spoken about in the quiet. that had been spoken about behind closed doors. anyone with support for him or his organization would mean imprisonment, banishment, and could mean and did mean in many cases, death. to understand the changes within this country one has to go back to that period of time when the person who's death and life is being celebrated at the moment was vilified, and regarded as subversive, regarded as a traitor to this state and many other states, and this shows you how time changes. south africans, in parti
'm a loyal member of the anc. the world had changed and had to go away from the socialist philosophy. he changed radically in a very short amount of time. one of the things he always said to me, he was never high bound about haenging his mind. he said when circumstances change i changed my mind. what do you do. another great lesson for politicians. so he evolved so tremendously when he came out of prison. it was astonishing to watch. >> it is astonishing. incredible story. >> the transition between icon to being in power is one of those impossible things to do. >> it was much more difficult coming out of prison and being a practical politician than being in prison. mandela's greatest teacher said i haven't had a good night's sleep since i left prison because now have responsibility. >> in 1994 brian williams interviewed nelson mandela. he asked him about his predecessor f.w. de klerk. >> my relationship with mr. de klerk and he's one of those south africans that i hold in high regard. we have had differences where we said cruel things to each other but at the end of the day, we're able t
economic and political waters. with the political icons demise the future of the a.n.c. is being thrown into question. mike hanna reports from johannesburg. >> prayers for a man who touched the lives of all. in the void left by nelson mandela's death, an awareness of challenges to come. the growing gap between rich and poor is a reminder of nelson mandela's promise of a better life is to be realised. >> i think the challenge we have for nelson mandela is to face the reality that if we don't do something for everybody, the young people will revolt, because if they remain poor and others are richer then they revolt. >> the fault lines within south african society is all-too clear of it was a labour dispute ruling in the killing of 30 at the mary carna mine -- marikana mine. many argue that the root cause was a government losing touch with those that put it in power. >> if you look at what happened over the last few years in terms of public violence, you can see that we have many, many people that don't feel represented by those in government. and the resort to violence is because we don'
amazing story that he told me was on the night before they left prison calling all the anc prisoners together and saying, yes, they would be justified in acts of revenge, retaliation and retribution, but there could never then be a strong, successful, multiracial society, and that was his second great achievement, to achieve change through reconciliation. but, you know, there was a didder achievement, refusing to rest or relax when he gave up the presidency. he had great achievement to his name. he himself wrote that in the first part of his life he had climbed one great mountain to end apartheid, but now in his later life he wanted to climb another great mountain, to rid the world of poverty and especially the outrage of child poverty. and i need speak of only what i saw in the times that i worked with him, how quietly and without fanfare he went about his work. 2005 i flew to south africa to meet nelson mandela to persuade him to come to london so that he could then persuade the finance ministers of the need for debt relief to relieve poverty, and this he did. and then in 2006 with
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